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  • Cashew processing industry before the problem of cooperation

    Mar 28th, 2016

    From 2006 to now, Vietnam has continuously topped the world in the export of cashew nuts, the annual processing capacity of up to 1.4 million tons (accounting for nearly 50% of the total 2.9 million tons of crude processing over the world). But from here, Vietnam cashew industry increasingly dependent on imported raw materials, particularly from African countries, the region accounted for 40% of world crude.

    Cooperation is the trend

    In the early 2000s, when the processing capacity of the plant exceeds the domestic harvest, enterprises (companies) have to import raw materials mainly from African countries. At that time, companies imported only 20% - 30%, the remaining 70% - 80% is the use of raw materials in the country, but by 2014 had increased to 50% to enter new production of crude processing enough high-quality goods for export. And in 2015, the companies entered over 860,000 tons, accounting for over 60% of production and processing. Besides the processing capacity of the plant increased, there is no reason the output of raw materials in the country dropped by trees that do not compete with other industrial plants more valuable, such as coffee, rubber , pepper, cashew should just stick lands that other plants can not withstand it. Even as Binh Phuoc, was named the capital of the country cashews, nut quality during processing of foreign customers assessed as characteristic taste and delicious, it is also an area greatly reduced, while 134,000 ha compared to 170.000ha 2007.

    frica is the region with the greatest of raw materials in the world, accounting for 40% of global conditions. So, of 867,000 tons of crude imports from 25 countries in 2015, mostly from the region. First time, the import of raw cashew from Africa, Vietnam enterprises have mediated Indian brokers, recently many companies have trade directly with exporters that Africa, softer prices . But Vietnam enterprises facing difficulties as payment for goods, no quality control, loss in transit. Many African businesses disrespectful contract (delayed deliveries to depress prices or fraud in quality), when disputes occur very difficult to handle ...

    So the end of 2013, in collaboration with the Ministry of Industry and Trade, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, organized Vinacas Developers Conference that Vietnam - Africa in the city with the presence of the supplier of crude to water from the Ivory Coast, Ghana, Guinea Bissau, Nigeria, Benin ... and that the African Union (ACA). Recently, the County Council and Cotton Ivory Coast (CCA) has more specific steps, such as CCA to ensure the performance of contracts, but each side has different goals.

    Cooperation to be?

    Dang Hoang Giang, Vice Chairman of Vinacas, said that in Vietnam 867,000 tons of crude imported separately accounted for 302,000 tons of Ivory Coast (36%). However, dealing with uncertainties from the sale. This is also a country with ambitions and a clear strategy to promote in-country processing equipment, technology and manpower from Vietnam. He Malamine Sanogo, CCA Director General, emphasized: "Ivory Coast is the largest producer of crude worldwide, 2016 of about 725,000 tons harvested, but the ability to process 45,000 tons only (6%), productivity adjustable from 0.4 to 0.7 tons / ha compared to Vietnam is about 1.2 to 1.4 tons / ha. Therefore, we wish to cooperate with you in order to learn renovated orchard and Vietnam called for businesses investing in processing plants Ivory Coast. If the two sides to cooperate better to make sure they both win. " It can be said, in this context, cooperation is the trend, but how cooperation is to take into account when they both have different goals.

    Nguyen Duc Thanh, chairman of Vinacas, confirmed Vinacas ready to assist Ivorian techniques to increase productivity from 0.4 tons to about 1 t / ha. In addition, Vietnam's cashew processing enterprises can invest in building factories cut shelling in Ivory Coast which then carry on deep processing Vietnam. Initially, the two countries' cooperation in this direction, ensuring mutually beneficial. However, CCA does not want just so. Thus, CCA also collaborated with the Polytechnic University of Ho Chi Minh City Centre concluded with technology business incubation. Accordingly, the center will transfer some means of machines as well as providing human resources through Ivory Coast to train personnel to operate the factory it here. In this spirit, the CCA has established factories in the host country and it is expected to go into operation in April 5-2016.

    We can say, this is controversial even within the Vinacas and cashew. Pham Van Cong, Vice President, Head of Science and Technology Vinacas, said that the aspirations of many processing plants that did not want to export machinery, equipment out of Vietnam, especially as no transfer of technology for Africa. According to Nguyen Duc Thanh, the cooperation should be at the state level between governments and coordination, division of tasks between the parties, as well as specific limits, avoid making up everyone, only help to benefit cooperation and will kill the domestic industry. Cooperation is the trend, but must have a roadmap and there are certain limitations. This job is not for the purpose of protection that society, as hundreds of thousands of workers and to ensure that the industry can develop sustainably. But which also shows that the industry needs to step forward with a new initiative, the export semi-processed and finished products in order to enhance the processing of value added. After all, in the long term crude-exporting countries also will find ways of processing in place and gradually progress to stop limiting the way crude production over 20 years ago Vietnam did.

    The collaboration easy 

    Many see technology Vietnam cashew processing is the "treasure", "recipes" that contribute to the success of the domestic cashew processing industry in 25 years. From raw cashew export low value, Vietnam has grown to become the country's export processing and leading articles. Processing technology of Vietnam it is not only the countries with the oldest processed as India and Brazil, but the whole community of nations has an area big thing in Africa - which up to now only exports crude - are very interested and eager to learn and access. Since 2006, many delegations from India, Ivory Coast, Nigeria, Mozambique, Tanzania ... to Vietnam to learn about this technology. Of these, most are determined to Ivory Coast through the operation of the County Council and Cotton Ivory Coast (CCA).

    Ivory Coast is a national cashew production and export of raw cashew largest worldwide, with 10-year strategy with the ambition to enhance productivity and output as well as the processing target that spot up to 50% instead of export crude, to be able to step in direct competition with Vietnam and India. The country has a very systematic steps to achieve goals such as increased protection of domestic production, limited crude exports, strengthen cooperation with Vietnam, signed the minutes of the cooperation with Binh Phuoc Vinacas, link opens vocational school in the Ivory Coast to Ho Chi Minh City University of technology, opened a representative office in the city ... to be technology transfer, cashew processing machinery. Many social organizations and occupations, including manufacturing businesses and "force trigger" sell machines, with a few members Vinacas ... has been quietly cooperating with the Ivory Coast because the benefits own team rather than thinking of global hazardous ones.

    Since 1999, public opinion had not concurred the Center for Research and application of scientific and technical services (DOST-MT HCMC) signed contracts to export cashew processing equipment for Mozambique. Meanwhile, public opinion and public opinion that industry has reacted fiercely. At that time, Vinacas has also confirmed that the processing technology of Vietnam is that the owner is a branch of Vietnam should MOST Environment and Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development was forced to issue a written proposal to the Government only stop direct export cashew processing technology Vietnam abroad. Today, HCMC Polytechnic University signed and transferred equipment and processing technologies that Vietnam to Ivory Coast, this job concerns raised in the community cashew processing industry. Maybe a few businesses and individuals to benefit from this cooperation, but the long-term consequences will be unpredictable end. A lot of members Vinacas warned, once you grasp the processing technology partners Ivory Coast will limit the sale of crude. And it sets an example to other African countries such as Ghana, Benin, Guinea Bissau, Mozambique ... go by, restrict exports of crude abroad, become competitors even with Vietnam. Vietnam cashew industry with millions of employees will "standing dead" because this permissive cooperation.

    Nguyen Van Lang

    (Former Vice President VINACAS)

    Source: Sai Gon Giai Phong Newspaper